What effect does smoking have on male fertility?

Steve Silvestro, MD - Contributor Avatar

Written by Gina Allegretti, MD 

Steve Silvestro, MD - Contributor Avatar

Written by Gina Allegretti, MD 

last updated: Apr 27, 2022

4 min read

Anyone who has experienced fertility issues knows that there’s no shortage of factors that can affect this complex process, including hormones, anatomy, family history, and underlying medical conditions. But what about things you may be exposed to every day, like cigarette smoke? Does smoking affect sperm? And can secondhand smoke affect fertility? Read on to find out.

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Does smoking affect male fertility? 

Yes, smoking can decrease male fertility. It has a negative effect on sperm quality, affects erectile function, and even passively impacts fertility in partners with ovaries. Let’s take a closer look at how smoking affects each factor individually. 

Smoking and sperm quality

Good quality semen and healthy sperm depend on several parameters, including sperm count (total number of sperm), sperm motility (forward movement of sperm towards an egg), and sperm morphology (sperm shape). 

A 2016 meta-analysis on the effects of smoking on fertility found that smoking and tobacco exposure can decrease sperm counts and impair both motility and morphology (Sharma, 2016; Beal, 2017). This may make it less likely that sperm will be able to reach an egg and fertilize it. 

Smoking also leads to a scenario called oxidative stress. Oxidative stress means that your body has too many harmful molecules called free radicals. This damages sperm’s genetic material (DNA damage) so that they don’t function normally, potentially reducing the likelihood of fertilization (Jenkins, 2017; Harlev, 2015). 

Smoking and erections

Smoking is also linked to the inability to achieve or maintain an erection for satisfying sex (erectile dysfunction, or ED). Any amount of tobacco exposure is a risk factor for ED, although heavy smoking has the most severe impact (Kovac, 2015). 

Oxidative stress from smoking also exacerbates underlying health conditions like clogged arteries (atherosclerosis) and diabetes, which may worsen or contribute to ED

Secondhand smoke and fertility

Smoking doesn’t just affect the fertility of the person who smokes. It can also affect your partner and others by exposing them to secondhand smoke. Studies show that exposure to secondhand smoke decreases egg production and impairs fertility (Nizard, 2005). 

Can you reverse the effects of smoking on fertility? 

Decreased fertility from tobacco exposure doesn’t have to be permanent. 

People who stop smoking may see improved erectile function within just six months (Kovac, 2015). And one study found that sperm counts and sperm motility increased just three months after its participants quit smoking (Prentki Santos, 2011). 

An even more promising finding comes from another study in which researchers saw similar semen quality among non-smokers and people who quit smoking. This means that after you stop smoking, the quality of your sperm may significantly improve (Tang, 2019). 

Does smoking affect treatments like IVF? 

Besides increasing the risk of infertility, smoking also affects fertility treatment success rates. 

Sperm from people who smoke before conception occurs are more likely to form poor-quality embryos (Hoek, 2020). What this means is that assisted reproductive techniques like IVF (in vitro fertilization) and ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) may be less likely to work in people who smoke (Zitzmann, 2003). 

Tips for quitting smoking

Your sperm quality may improve when you quit smoking, and your likelihood of conception or successful fertility treatments increases. But it’s not always easy to quit. Luckily, there are a few things you can do that may help make quitting easier. 

Get help 

It can be difficult to stop smoking on your own. But the good news is, you don’t have to—your healthcare provider is a good resource for advice and support. Therapy (behavioral counseling) is often a helpful step in the quitting process. 

If you want to talk to people who have been through or are going through the same change, support groups are available in person and online. Or you may decide that your friends, family, and loved ones are the people you can lean on.   

Replace the nicotine

Cigarettes contain an addictive substance called nicotine, often making it hard to kick the habit. 

But there are ways to replace nicotine, like nicotine replacement patches or nicotine gum, that don’t include the other harmful substances found in cigarette smoke and can help you gradually decrease your nicotine dependence. Studies suggest that these treatments are safe and effective at helping people stop smoking, especially in the first six months of use (Schnoll, 2015). 

Take medication when needed

Sometimes, therapy and nicotine replacement don’t achieve your desired results. In this case, a healthcare provider may suggest medications. Commonly used medications for smoking cessation include an oral nicotine replacement drug called varenicline and a drug called bupropion (Wellbutrin; see Important Safety Information) that helps lessen nicotine withdrawal symptoms (Barua, 2018). 

Other ways to boost male fertility

Besides quitting smoking, there are a number of different strategies that can positively impact fertility, including: 

  • Staying active: Staying physically active can improve semen quality and may promote higher sperm counts (Gaskins, 2013).   

  • Eating healthy foods: Eating a nutritious and balanced diet that includes a lot of vegetables and fruits is also linked to better semen parameters (Zampieri, 2008).  

  • Drinking less alcohol: Having a drink now and then isn’t typically bad for fertility, but excessive drinking can worsen semen quality and decrease fertility (Finelli, 2021). 

  • Losing weight (when indicated): Reducing excess weight may improve semen quality and fertility, though the data is inconclusive (Håkonsen, 2011).

  • Moving your cell phone: Cell phones emit radiation that can damage some sperm functions, so it’s best to keep your phone out of your pocket and away from your groin (Hassanzadeh-Taheri, 2022).  

  • Taking care of your health: Underlying medical conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes may decrease fertility, so treating these issues may improve your fertility. 

It’s not easy to stop smoking, but doing so may improve your reproductive health. If you have questions about quitting smoking, consult your healthcare provider. They can help you figure out the best steps to take to stop smoking once and for all.   


If you have any medical questions or concerns, please talk to your healthcare provider. The articles on Health Guide are underpinned by peer-reviewed research and information drawn from medical societies and governmental agencies. However, they are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

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How we reviewed this article

Every article on Health Guide goes through rigorous fact-checking by our team of medical reviewers. Our reviewers are trained medical professionals who ensure each article contains the most up-to-date information, and that medical details have been correctly interpreted by the writer.

Current version

April 27, 2022

Written by

Gina Allegretti, MD

Fact checked by

Steve Silvestro, MD

About the medical reviewer

Dr. Steve Silvestro is a board-certified pediatrician and Associate Director, Clinical Content & Education at Ro.