What is female sexual arousal disorder?

Felix Gussone, MD - Contributor Avatar

Reviewed by Felix Gussone, MD, Ro, 

Written by Kristin DeJohn 

Felix Gussone, MD - Contributor Avatar

Reviewed by Felix Gussone, MD, Ro, 

Written by Kristin DeJohn 

last updated: Jan 27, 2022

5 min read

Sometimes, it’s hard to get aroused. Between stressors at work, family obligations, and a seemingly endless to-do list, getting in the mood can be hard to do. And while it’s true that once schedules, stressors, or relationships improve, feelings of attraction and arousal often return, that’s not always the case.

About 40% of women have sexual concerns, and low desire is a common complaint. For many women, sexual interest and arousal may not be an urge that rises and falls. It may never have existed, or it has decreased and not returned (Clayton, 2019). 

If this sounds familiar, you may be experiencing female sexual interest/arousal disorder. Here’s a look at what it is and how medical providers diagnose and treat it. 


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What is female sexual arousal disorder?

For years, female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) was used to describe a woman’s inability to become aroused in response to sexual excitement, potentially leading to a lack of vaginal lubrication and painful or less enjoyable sex (FDA, 2014). 

In 2013, because there is a lot of overlap between desire and arousal, the diagnosis expanded to include a lack of desire for sex (formerly hypoactive sexual desire disorder) and was named “female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD)."

FSIAD is part of a group of conditions known as female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Aside from FSIAD, pain during intercourse and delayed or absent orgasms (anorgasmia) also fall into this grouping (Wheeler, 2020). 

FSD affects more than 40% of premenopausal women globally—with more than 20% reporting vaginal lubrication issues and 28% saying they lack sexual desire (McCool, 2016). 

It’s worth noting that healthcare providers will only diagnose someone with FSD or FSIAD if the symptoms are causing them personal distress and impacting their mental health. In other words, if you're not bothered by a lack of desire or arousal, it shouldn’t be deemed a disorder, and there’s no need for treatment (FDA, 2014). 

FSAID symptoms and diagnosis

To receive an FSIAD diagnosis, at least three of the following symptoms have to be present (FDA, 2014): 

  • Reduced or no interest in sexual activity

  • Reduced or no sexual thoughts

  • Reduced or no initiation of sexual activity (and typically unreceptive to a partner’s attempts)

  • Reduced or no sexual excitement/pleasure during sex (75%+ of the time)

  • Reduced or no sexual interest in erotic cues (written, verbal, or visual)

  • Reduced or no genital (or other) sensations during sex (75%+ of the time)

A diagnosis also requires that symptoms cause significant distress, last six months or longer, and cannot be explained by other issues like substance abuse, medications, or a separate medical condition.

The reason healthcare providers want to know if sexual issues are causing personal distress is that, for years, the term sexual dysfunction was used too broadly, leading to overtreatment. The bottom line is that there is a wide variation in how women experience sex, and healthcare providers should base your treatment on what you need or want and not what others expect (FDA, 2014).

Causes of low desire and arousal  

The exact cause of FSIAD is not well understood, but a range of medical, psychological, and lifestyle factors have been linked to problems with sexual interest and desire (Faubion, 2015). 

Medical conditions and medications

Certain medical conditions and medications can cause side effects that lead to reduced desire or arousal, including:

Psychological/social conditions

Aside from physical or pharmaceutical causes of FSIAD, situational and psychological factors or social conditions may be the cause, including:

  • Stress/anxiety

  • Depression

  • Relationship problems

  • Cultural messages about sex

  • Low self-esteem

  • Poor body image

  • Life stage stressors (retirement/children leaving)

  • Sexual abuse  

As you can see, many things can impact desire and arousal. And experiencing lower desire and arousal is often normal. For instance, lower estrogen levels at menopause lead to a decrease in vaginal lubrication. This is a natural part of aging and is not a disorder, but it can factor into a broader issue that you may be looking to solve. 

This is why it’s important to sort out what’s bothering you and see if it’s just a normal variation in sexual response (Faubion, 2015).   

Treating female sexual interest/arousal disorder

Treating FSIAD focuses on the underlying cause. To start, it’s important to rule out medical conditions. Checking your medications is another key step to take. If your healthcare provider changes your medications or identifies and treats other health conditions, your problems with desire and arousal may go away. 

Sometimes, a combination of treatments works best. Many women prefer to start with topical treatments and sexual stimulation devices, such as vibrators. Medications and various types of psychotherapy, sex therapy, or counseling may also be key in tackling problems with sexual desire and arousal (Faubion, 2015).

Here’s a look at some common treatment options for FSIAD:


Over-the-counter lubricants aren’t going to affect desire, but they typically make vaginal sex more enjoyable, especially if arousal is an issue. This can be a start for women experiencing vaginal dryness and a lack of natural arousal. 

EROS device

The EROS is a small hand-held stimulation device that may increase vaginal lubrication and sensation by using suction to increase blood flow in the clitoral and labial area (Wilson, 2001). 


There are so many emotions linked to desire and arousal that good medication options are limited. Your healthcare provider may prescribe the following medications in certain cases:

  • Low-dose testosterone has shown some effectiveness in improving desire and orgasms. However, it’s not FDA-approved for treating low sexual desire in women due to a lack of long-term safety data (Vegunta, 2020).

  • Vaginal hormone therapy treatments: Topical estrogen, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatments (prasterone) don’t improve desire but can reduce vaginal skin dryness, restore skin thickness, and increase natural lubrication. (Kroll, 2018; Vegunta, 2020).

  • Sildenafil ( is typically used to treat erectile dysfunction in men. Though clinicians prescribe it off-label for some women with FSIAD, studies have not shown it to be very effective, though it may help in some cases (Brown, 2009).

  • Flibanserin (Addyi), an oral pill, and bremelanotide (Vyleesi), an injection, are FDA-approved medications to treat FSIAD and are sometimes dubbed “female Viagra” (FDA, 2019-a; FDA, 2019-b).

  • Bupropion (Wellbutrin; see (non-hormonal) is an antidepressant that can be used instead of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which can have negative effects on sexual function (Montejo, 2019).

Changing the way you think about sex

Because the brain is key to desire and arousal, a lot of research focuses on cognitive ways to approach FSIAD, often alone or in combination with medications. Some of these approaches include:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): There are various types of psychotherapy and counseling approaches that can improve sexual issues. CBT approaches have gained popularity in helping to treat FSIAD (Meyers, 2020). 

  • Cognitive restructuring of what to expect from sex: There are different ways to view sex; taking the pressure off of having an orgasm can, in some cases, make it easier to enjoy sex and reach orgasm (Metz, 2017).

  • Letting go of distracting thoughts: Identifying potential distracting thoughts and letting them go during sexual activity—a practice usually linked to meditation—may help boost arousal. Studies show that women who meditate weekly report higher levels of arousal and lubrication during sex, suggesting the ability to focus may boost your sex life (Dascalu, 2018).

  • Mindfulness-based approaches: Mindfulness is a popular way of calming the mind by focusing on the present. If the focus is on body awareness and sex, it can improve desire, arousal, and orgasm. Research shows that mindfulness-based approaches, which boost awareness of the body and sensations in a non-judgmental way, may help with FSIAD (Velten, 2019

Lifestyle changes

This may involve self-care, taking time for yourself, reducing stress, and other ways of boosting your health.  

When to see a healthcare provider

If an issue with sexual interest, arousal, or any other problem is bothering you, consider reaching out to a healthcare provider. Once they rule out underlying medical issues and you discuss your options, your healthcare provider may refer you to a sex therapist or another type of specialized therapist.

Often, medical, mental, and social concerns overlap when it comes to FSIAD. Working with more than one professional may help you increase your levels of desire and arousal so you can have a more fulfilling sex life.


If you have any medical questions or concerns, please talk to your healthcare provider. The articles on Health Guide are underpinned by peer-reviewed research and information drawn from medical societies and governmental agencies. However, they are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

How we reviewed this article

Every article on Health Guide goes through rigorous fact-checking by our team of medical reviewers. Our reviewers are trained medical professionals who ensure each article contains the most up-to-date information, and that medical details have been correctly interpreted by the writer.

Current version

January 27, 2022

Written by

Kristin DeJohn

Fact checked by

Felix Gussone, MD

About the medical reviewer

Felix Gussone is a physician, health journalist and a Manager, Medical Content & Education at Ro.